Monday, March 19, 2012




IWS Documented News Service


Institute for Workplace Studies----------------- Professor Samuel B. Bacharach

School of Industrial & Labor Relations-------- Director, Institute for Workplace Studies

Cornell University

16 East 34th Street, 4th floor---------------------- Stuart Basefsky

New York, NY 10016 -------------------------------Director, IWS News Bureau




IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística)


[full-text, 24 pages]


Press Release 8 March 2012
Women's wages have remained 28% lower than men’s for the last three years



The study Women in the labor market: questions and answers, released today by IBGE to celebrate the International Women's Day, is intended to present a panorama of women's presence in the job market. It reveals that women still have a lower income than men. In 2011, women earned, on average, 72.3% of the salary salary of men, a proportion which has remained unchanged since 2009.

On the other hand, women's working hours are reduced compared with men's. In 2011, women worked and average of 39.2 hours per week, and men, 43.4 hours, resulting in a 4.2-hour difference. Nonetheless, 4.8% of the women who were employed in 2011 would like to have increased their weekly working hours.  

Women outnumbered men in public administration (22.6% versus 10.5% of men) in 2011. The activities which concentrated mostly women's manpower compared with figures of 2003 were trade (from 38.2% to 42.6%) and services rendered to enterprises (from 37.3% to 42.0%). The sector of domestic services, despite the decrease faced by the employed population (from 7.6% in 2003 to 6.9% in 2011), is still characterized by a predominance of female manpower (94.8%), the same percentage as in 2003.

In spite of the differences between the sexes, the study also showed that the unbalance in terms of participation in the labor market was reduced in 2011, and that the participation of women in all types of occupation recorded increase. In 2003, for example, the proportion of men with an employment record card signed by the private sector was 62.3%, whereas among women the figure was 37.7%, 24.7 percentage points smaller.  Last year, these figures were 59.6% and 40.4%, resulting in the decrease of this difference to 19.1 percentage points.  The biggest increment in women’s participation was observed in employment without a signed record card (36.5% in 2003 to 40.5% in 2011).

These and other data about women in the labor market are available in the complete publication, which can be seen on the page



Women make up most of the population, but face more disadvantages at work


Although women made up, in 2011, 53.7% of the Brazilian population aged 10 years and over (at working age), they were less representative in the employed population (45.4%). Compared with data of 2003, the female employed population by 2.4 percentage points (43.0%).


Women were also the majority considering the unemployed population (57.9% of women versus 42.1% of men) and in the non-economically active population (63.9% versus 36.1%) in 2011. On average, they were 11.0 million in labor market, with 10.2 million employed and 825 thousand unemployed. The number of women out of the working-age population was 11.5 million. Compared with 2003, the increase of women's participation in the economically-active population was 1.8 percentage points (from 44.4% in 2003 to 46.1% in 2011).


The unemployment rate of black and brown women fell from 18.2% in 2003 to 9.1% in 2011. Among the white ones, this indicator faced decrease from 13.1% in 2003 to 6.1% last year.


Special material on the International Women's Day brings information and interviews


To celebrate the International Women's Day IBGE also makes available, in a channel directed to the young audience (IBGE Teen) on its web site, some special material on the date. 


Besides updated information about women, selected from several surveys of the institute, there are interviews with prominent women - including the President of IBGE, Wasmália Bivar -, a list of women who have made history (in the fields of politics and government, social and religious works, feminist claims and social rights, sports, arts and culture), and a link to a short summary about each of the Brazilian female ministers. 


The special material is available at





This information is provided to subscribers, friends, faculty, students and alumni of the School of Industrial & Labor Relations (ILR). It is a service of the Institute for Workplace Studies (IWS) in New York City. Stuart Basefsky is responsible for the selection of the contents which is intended to keep researchers, companies, workers, and governments aware of the latest information related to ILR disciplines as it becomes available for the purposes of research, understanding and debate. The content does not reflect the opinions or positions of Cornell University, the School of Industrial & Labor Relations, or that of Mr. Basefsky and should not be construed as such. The service is unique in that it provides the original source documentation, via links, behind the news and research of the day. Use of the information provided is unrestricted. However, it is requested that users acknowledge that the information was found via the IWS Documented News Service.


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