Wednesday, May 09, 2012
[IWS] ADB: SHADOW EDUCATION: PRIVATE SUPPLEMENTARY TUTORING AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR POLICY MAKERS IN ASIA [9 May 2012]
IWS Documented News Service
Institute for Workplace Studies----------------- Professor Samuel B. Bacharach
School of Industrial & Labor Relations-------- Director, Institute for Workplace Studies
16 East 34th Street, 4th floor---------------------- Stuart Basefsky
New York, NY 10016 -------------------------------Director, IWS News Bureau
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Shadow Education: Private Supplementary Tutoring and Its Implications for Policy Makers in Asia [9 May 2012]
[full-text, 114 pages]
In all parts of Asia, households devote considerable expenditures to private supplementary tutoring. This tutoring may contribute to students’ achievement, but it also maintains and exacerbates social inequalities, diverts resources from other uses, and can contribute to inefficiencies in education systems.
Such tutoring is widely called shadow education, because it mimics school systems. As the curriculum in the school system changes, so does the shadow.
This study documents the scale and nature of shadow education in different parts of the region. For many decades, shadow education has been a major phenomenon in East Asia. Now it has spread throughout the region, and it has far-reaching economic and social implications.
•Mapping the Landscape
•Demand and Supply
•Impact of Shadow Education
•Implications for Policy Makers
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